The automobile wiring harness is the main body of the automobile circuit, and there is no automobile circuit without the wiring harness. Wire harness refers to a component that is formed by crimping contact terminals (connectors) made of copper material with wires and cables, and then plasticizing an insulator or adding a metal shell on the outside to form a connected circuit. The wiring harness industry chain includes wire and cable, connectors, processing equipment, wiring harness manufacturing and downstream application industries. The wiring harness is widely used and can be used in automobiles, household appliances, computers and communication equipment, various electronic instruments and meters, etc. The body wiring harness connects the entire body , The general shape is H-shaped.
In modern cars, there are a lot of car wiring harnesses, and the electronic control system is closely related to the wiring harness. Someone once made a vivid analogy: if the functions of microcomputers, sensors, and actuators are compared with the human body, it can be said that the microcomputer is equivalent to the human brain, the sensor is equivalent to the sensory organ, and the actuator is equivalent to the moving organ, then the wiring harness is the nerve and Blood vessels.
Automobile wiring harness is the main body of the automobile circuit network, which connects the electrical and electronic components of the automobile and makes it function. Without the wiring harness, there is no automobile circuit. At present, whether it is a high-end luxury car or an economical ordinary car, the form of the wiring harness is basically the same. It is composed of wires, connectors and wrapping tape. It must ensure the transmission of electrical signals and the connection of the circuit. Reliability, supply the specified current value to electronic and electrical components, prevent electromagnetic interference to surrounding circuits, and eliminate electrical short circuits.
Automotive wiring harnesses are divided into functions, there are two types of power lines that carry power to drive the actuators (actuators) and signal lines that transmit sensor input commands. Power lines are thick wires that carry large currents, while signal lines are thin wires that do not carry power (optical fiber communication); for example, the cross-sectional area of wires for signal circuits is 0.3 or 0.5 mm2.
The cross-sectional area of wires used in motors and actuators is 0.85 and 1.25mm2, while the cross-sectional areas of wires used in power circuits are 2, 3, and 5mm2; while special circuits (starters, alternators, engine grounding wires, etc.) have 8, 10, 15, 20mm2 different specifications. The larger the cross-sectional area of the wire, the larger the current capacity. In addition to considering the electrical performance, the selection of wires is also restricted by the physical performance of the vehicle, so the selection range is very wide. For example, the frequently opened/closed door of a taxi and the wires that span the body should be made of wires with good flexibility. Wires used in high temperature locations generally use vinyl chloride and polyethylene coated wires with good insulation and heat resistance. In recent years, electromagnetic shielding wires used in weak signal circuits have also been increasing.
With the increase of automobile functions and the widespread application of electronic control technology, there will be more and more electrical components and more and more wires. The number of circuits and power consumption on automobiles will increase significantly, and the wiring harness will become thicker and heavier. . This is a big problem that needs to be solved. How to make a large number of wiring harnesses more effectively and rationally arranged in a limited car space so that the car harnesses can exert greater functions has become a problem faced by the automobile manufacturing industry.